How to make citation in an essay?
The essay should
express the author’s view on the problem under consideration, however, in order
to reveal the topic, most often it is necessary to quote from various sources
of literature. Since the essay in its genre is close to a work of art, then the
presentation of other people’s thoughts in it may be more artistic than in
essays or dissertations.
Citation options depend on the genre of the quoted fragment.
Epigraphs. They are given without quotes, but with the obligatory indication of the author without brackets. The epigraph should be appropriate, as, indeed, any quotation in the essay. It is given in order to give expressiveness to the work, so it must very accurately reflect the essence of the work, become its highlight.
Poems. When quoting poetic lines, you should also not enclose them in quotes, if they are arranged in a column. But when writing in one line, after the author’s words, quotation marks are put, and a separation sign is inserted between the lines. In this case, you should not get involved in and rewrite entire poems. This can not only tire a person who will become familiar with the essay, but also give him the impression of an artificial increase in the volume of work. It is better to take a well-known couplet or quatrain, capable of striking the reader with extraordinary ideas, comparisons.
Famous sayings. If it is necessary to cite as an example the famous sayings of any author, then it is given in quotation marks indicating the author.
Statements by the authors. Quotes of the author from any source is made in the form of direct or indirect speech. When quoting the full direct speech of the author, the quotation begins with a capital letter, while taking only a part of the author’s statement, the quotation begins with a capital or lower case letter depending on the fragment taken. In this case, in place of the missing words put ellipsis.
In indirect speech, quoting begins with a lowercase letter. If the author’s thoughts are presented in free form, without quoting, it is enough to indicate in parentheses the source number (for numbered lists) or the author’s last name and year of publication of the source (for unnumbered lists). Reference to the source used may be subscript. For its design at the end of the quoted phrase you need to put the Arabic numeral corresponding to the sequence number of links on the page.